Chapter 5: Amplitude Modulation Reception - Review Notes

Reviewer and summary notes of the important concepts and formulas in Chapter 5 of the book "Introduction to Electronics Communications" by Wayne Tomasi.

Chapter 5: Amplitude Modulation Reception

This is the summary notes of the important terms and concepts in Chapter 5 of the book "Electronic Communications System" by Wayne Tomasi. The notes are properly synchronized and concise for much better understanding of the book. Make sure to familiarize this review notes to increase the chance of passing the ECE Board Exam.

CHAPTER 5

AMPLITUDE MODULATION RECEPTION

Items

Definitions

Terms

1

The reverse process of AM modulation.

AM Demodulation

2

The first stage of the receiver of which primary functions are detecting, band limiting, and amplifying the received.

RF Section

3

This section down-converts the received RF frequencies to intermediate frequencies (IFs).

Mixer / Converter

4

This section primary functions are amplification and selectivity.

IF Section

5

This section demodulates the AM wave and converts it to the original information signal.

AM Detector

6

This section amplifies the recovered information. Comprises several cascaded audio amplifiers and one or more speakers.

Audio Section

7

A receiver parameter that is used to measure the ability of the receiver to accept a given band of frequencies and reject all others.

Selectivity

8

The ratio of the bandwidth 60dB below maximum signal level and bandwidth 3dB below maximum signal level.

Shape Factor

9

The most prevalent form of noise and is directly proportional to bandwidth.

Thermal Noise

10

Noise reduction ratio achieved by reducing the Bandwidth.

Bandwidth Improvement

11

The corresponding reduction in the noise figure due to the reduction in bandwidth expressed mathematically in dB.

Noise Figure Improvement

12

The ________ of a receiver is the minimum RF signal level that can be detected at the input to the receiver and still produce a usable demodulated information signal. Also known as receiver threshold.

Sensitivity

13

Defined as the difference in decibels between the minimum input level necessary to discern a signal and the input level that will overdrive the receiver and produce distortion.

Dynamic Range

14

Defined as the output power when the RF amplifier response is 1 dB less than the ideal linear-gain response.

1-dB Compression Point

15

A measure of the ability of a communication system to produce, at the output of the receiver, an exact replica of the original source information.

Fidelity

16

Any frequency, phase, or amplitude variations that are present in the demodulated waveform that were not in the original information signal.

Distortion

17

The total phase shift encountered by a signal and can generally be tolerated as long as all frequencies undergo the same amount of phase delay.

Absolute Phase Shift

18

Occurs when different frequencies undergo different phase shifts and ay have a detrimental effect on a complex waveform.

Differential Phase Shift

19

Defined as the ratio of the power transferred to a load with a filter in the circuit to the power transferred to a load without the filter.

Insertion Loss

( IL )

20

A hypothetical value that cannot be directly measured. A parameter that is used in low-noise, sophisticated radio receivers rather than noise figure.

Equivalent Noise Temperature

21

The frequencies generated in the receiver and used for demodulation are synchronized to oscillator frequencies generated in the transmitter.

Coherent / Synchronous Receiver

22

Either no frequencies are generated in the receiver or the frequencies used for demodulation are completely independent from the transmitter’s carrier frequency.

Noncoherent / Asynchronous Receiver

23

One of the earliest types of AM receivers and are probably the simplest designed radio receivers available today.

Tuned Radio Frequency

24

A phenomenon at radio frequencies where current flow is limited to the outermost area of a conductor.

Skin Effect

25

A technique where TRF receiver’s instability can be reduced somewhat by tuning each amplifier to a slightly different frequency, slightly above or below the desired center frequency.

Stagger Tuning

26

Means to mix two frequencies together in a nonlinear device or to translate one frequency to another using nonlinear mixing.

Heterodyne

27

A broad –tuned bandpass filter with an adjustable center frequency that is tuned to desired carrier frequency.

Preselector

28

The most common intermediate frequency used in AM broadcast-band receivers is ________.

455 kHz

29

Consists of a series of IF amplifiers and bandpass filters and is often called IF strip.

IF Section

30

Refer to frequencies that are used within a transmitter or receiver that fall somewhere between the radio frequencies and the original source information frequencies.

Intermediate Frequency

31

Means that the two adjustments are mechanically tied together so that a single adjustment will change the center frequency of the preselector and, at the same time, change the local oscillator frequency.

Gang Tuning

32

When the local oscillator is tuned above the RF it is?

High-side Injection / High-beat Injection

33

When the local oscillator is tuned below the RF it is?

Low-side Injection / Low-beat Injection

34

The side frequencies undergo a sideband reversal during the heterodyning process called?

Sideband Inversion

35

The ability of the local oscillator in a receiver to oscillate above or below the selected radio frequency carrier by an amount equal to the intermediate frequency throughout the entire radio frequency band.

Tracking

36

The difference between the actual oscillator frequency and the desired frequency.

Tracking Error

37

Any frequency other than the selected radio frequency carrier that, if allowed to enter a receiver and mix with the local oscillator, will produce a cross-product frequency that is equal to the intermediate frequency.

Image Frequency

38

A numerical measure of the ability of a preselector to reject the image frequency.

Image-frequency Rejection Ratio

39

Occurs when a receiver picks up the same station at two nearby points on the receiver tuning dial.

Double Spotting

40

A high-gain, low-noise, tuned amplifier that, when used, is the first active stage encountered by the received signal.

RF Amplifier

41

High-performance microwave receivers require a ________ as the input stage of the RF section to optimize their noise figure.

Low-noise Amplifier ( LNA )

42

A FET with a metal-semiconductor junction at the gate of the device, called a Schottky barrier.

MEsa Semiconductor FET Semiconductor FET ( MESFET )

43

A wideband, unconditionally stable, low-power, dual-gain linear integrated-circuit RF amplifier manufactured by Signetics Corporation.

NE / SA5200

44

This section purpose is to down-convert the incoming radio frequencies to intermediate frequencies proportional to bandwidth.

Mixer / Converter Stage

45

The difference between the level of the IF output with an RF input signal to the level of the IF output with an IF input signal.

Conversion Gain

46

A configuration where the mixer excites itself by feeding energy back to the local oscillator tank circuit to sustain oscillations noise figure.

Self-excited Mixer

47

A low-power VHF monolithic double-balanced mixer with input amplifier, on-board oscillator, and voltage regulator.

NE / SA602A

48

Are relatively high-gain amplifiers that are very similar to RF amplifiers, except that IF amplifiers operate over a relatively narrow, fixed frequency band.

Intermediate Frequency

( IF ) Amplifier

49

The most common technique used for coupling where the voltage that is applied to the primary windings of a transformer is transferred to the secondary windings.

Inductive or Transformer

Coupling

50

Ability of a coil to induce a voltage within its windings.

Inductance

51

Ability of one coil to induce a voltage in another coil.

Mutual Inductance

52

The ratio of the secondary flux to the primary flux.

Coefficient of Coupling

53

The transfer of flux from the primary to the secondary windings and is directly proportional to the coefficient of coupling.

Flux Linkage

54

The point where the reflected resistance is equal to the primary resistance an d the Q of the primary tank circuit is halved and the bandwidth doubled.

Critical Coupling

55

Is caused by the reactive element of the reflected impedance being significant enough to change the resonant frequency of the primary tuned circuit.

Double Peaking

56

The coefficient of coupling approximately 50% greater than the critical value yields a good compromise between flat response and steep skirts.

Optimum Coupling

57

IF transformers come as specially designed tuned circuits in groundable metal packages called _______.

IF Cans

58

A differential cascoded amplifier designed for use in communications and industrial equipment as an IF or RF amplifier at frequencies from dc to 120 MHz.

CA3028A

59

The function of this circuit is to demodulate the AM signal and recover or reproduce the original source information.

AM Detector

60

A simple noncoherent AM demodulator using a diode. Also called as diode, shape, or envelope detector.

Peak Detector

61

A distortion in the detection process where the RC time constant is too short, the output waveform resembles a half-wave rectified signal.

Rectifier Distortion

62

A distortion in the detection process where the RC time constant is too long, the slope of the output waveform cannot follow the trailing slope of the envelope.

Diagonal Clipping

63

A circuit that compensates for minor variations in the received RF signal.

Automatic Gain Control

( AGC )

64

It prevents the AGC feedback voltage from reaching the RF or IF amplifiers until the RF level exceeds a predetermined magnitude.

Delayed AGC

65

Is similar to conventional AGC except that the receive signal is monitored closer to the front end of the receiver and the correction voltage is fed forward to the IF amplifiers.

Forward AGC

66

Its purpose is to quiet a receiver in the absence of a received signal.

Squelch Circuit

67

Are used to remove sporadic, high-amplitude noise transients of short duration, such as impulse noise in the audio section of a receiver.

Limiters /

Clippers

68

A method of measuring signal strength relative to noise strength where an RF carrier modulated 30% by a 1-kHz tone is applied to the input of the receiver.

Signal-to-Notched Noise Ratio

69

A National Semiconductor Corporation linear integrated circuit AM radio chip that has an onboard RF amplifier, mixer, local oscillator, and IF amplifier stages. An LIC audio amplifier, such as the LM386, and a speaker are necessary to complete a functional receiver.

LM1820

70

This receivers would need only two external components: a volume control and a station tuning control.

PLL Receivers

71

The ratio of the demodulated signal level at the output of the receiver (audio) to the RF signal level at the input to the receiver, or the difference between the audio signal level in dBm and the RF signal level in dBm.

Net Receiver Gain

72

Includes all the gains and losses incurred by a signal as it propagates from the transmitter output stage to the output of the detector in the receiver and includes antenna gain and transmission line and propagation losses.

System Gain

Complete List of Reviewers in Electronic Communications System per Chapter

Important List of Communications Engineering Materials


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