Chapter 21: Introduction to Data Communications and Networking - Review Notes

Reviewer and summary notes of the important concepts and formulas in Chapter 21 of the book "Introduction to Electronics Communications" by Wayne Tomasi.

Chapter 21: Introduction to Data Communications and Networking

This is the summary notes of the important terms and concepts in Chapter 21 of the book "Electronic Communications System" by Wayne Tomasi. The notes are properly synchronized and concise for much better understanding of the book. Make sure to familiarize this review notes to increase the chance of passing the ECE Board Exam.

CHAPTER 21

INTRODUCTION TO DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING

Items

Definitions

Terms

1

Information that is stored in digital form. Information that has been processed organized and stored.

Data

2

Knowledge or intelligence.

Information

3

The transmission, reception, and processing of digital information.

Data Communications

4

It is to transfer digital information from one place to another.

Data Communications Circuit

5

A set of devices interconnected by media links.

Network

6

Systems of interrelated computers and computer equipment and can be as simple as a personal computer connected together through the PTN.

Data Communications Networks

7

Automatic teller machine

ATM

8

When was one of the earliest means of communicating electrically coded information occurred?

1753

9

In 1833, he developed an unusual system based on a five-by-five matrix representing 25 letters. The idea was to send message over a single wire.

Carl Friedrich Gauss

10

The first successful data communications that was invented in 1832. Dots and Dashes.

Telegraph

11

He invented the first practical data communications code which is called Morse Code.

Samuel F.B. Morse

12

Allegedly invented the first telegraph in England.

1. Sir Charles Wheatstone

2. Sir William Cooke

13

In 1874, he invented the telegraph multiplexer which Emile allowed up to six different telegraph machines to be transmitted simultaneously over a single wire.

Emile Baudot

14

It was invented in 1875 by Alexander Graham Bell.

Telephone

15

He succeeded in sending radio telegraph messages.

Guglielmo Marconi

16

The only means of sending information across large spans of water until 1920.

Telegraph

17

A German engineer, demonstrated a computing machine sometime in the late 1930s.

Konrad Zuis

18

Developed the ENIAC computer on Feb. 14, 1946

J. Presper Eckert

John Mauchley

19

A technique that process one job at a time.

Batch Processing

20

Built in 1951 by Remington Rand Corp., was the First mass-produced electronic computer.

UNIVAC Computer

21

A public data communications network used by millions of people all over the world to exchange business and personal information.

Internet

22

Private data communications networks used by many companies to exchange information among employees and resources.

Intranet

23

Any system of computers, computer terminals or computer peripheral equipment used to transmit and receive information between two or more locations.

Data Communications Network

24

A set of equipment, transmission media and procedures that ensures that a specific sequence of events occurs in a network in the proper order to produce the intended results.

Network Architecture

25

Messages are intended for all subscribers on the network.

Broadcasting

26

Messages are intended for a specific group of subscribers.

Multicasting

27

Defines the procedures that the systems involved in the communications process will use.

Protocols

28

Sets of rules governing the orderly exchange of data within the network or a portion of the network.

Data Communications Protocols

29

The list of the protocols used by a system.

Protocol Stack

30

It consists of two or more independent levels.

Layered Network

Architecture

31

A logical connection is established between the endpoints prior to the transmission of data.

Connection Oriented or Connectionless

32

They are designed to provide a high degree of reliability for data moving through the network.

Connection-Oriented Protocol

33

A connection process that occurs between two stations before any data are actually transmitted.

Another terms:

·         Sessions

·         Virtual circuits

·         logical connections

Handshake

34

It refers to the structure or format of the data within the message, which includes the sequence in which the data are sent.

Syntax

35

Guidelines that have been generally accepted by the data communications industry.

Types of standards:

Ø Proprietary system -open

Ø open system

Data Communications Standards

36

Generally controlled and manufactured by one company.

Proprietary Standard

37

The international organization for standardization on a wide range of subjects.

International Standards

Organization (ISO)

38

The member of ISO from the United States.

American National Standard Institute

(ANSI)

39

It is formerly CCITT, one of four permanent parts is based in Geneva, Switzerland.

International Telecommunications Union

40

Modem interfaces and data transmission over the telephone lines.

V series

41

Data transmission over public digital Network, e-mail and directory services.

X series

42

An international professional organization founded in the United States and is comprised of electronics, computer and communications engineers.

Institute of Electrical & IEEE)and Electronics Engineers

43

A non-profit U.S. trade association that establishes and recommends industrial standards.

Electronics Industry Association

(EIA)

44

The leading trade association in the communications and information technology industry.

Telecommunications Industry Association

45

The research arm of the Department of Defense in 1957.

Advanced Research Projects Agency

(ARPA)

46

A large international community of network designers, operators, vendors and researches concerned with the evolution of the internet architecture and the smooth operation of the internet.

Internet Engineering Task Force

(IETF)

47

It promotes research of importance to the evolution of the future Internet by creating focused, long term and small research groups working on topics related to internet protocols.

Internet Research Task Force

 (IRTF)

48

A unit of data.

Protocol data Unit

(PDU)

49

The process of adding and removing the PDU information.

Encapsulation/Decapsulation

50

It means to place in a capsule or other protected environment.

Encapsulate

51

It means to remove from a capsule or other protected environment.

Decapsulate

52

Defines which entity the service is intended.

Service Access Point

(SAP)

53

The name for the set of standards for communicating among computers

Seven OSI layers:

·         application

·         presentation

·         session

·         transport

·         network

·         data link

·         physical

Open Systems Interconnection

(OSI)

54

Responsible for the actual propagation of unstructured data bits through a transmission medium.

Physical Layer

55

Responsible for providing error-free communications across the physical link connecting primary and secondary stations within a network.

Data Link Layer

56

Provides details that enable data to be routed between devices in an environment using multiple networks, subnetwork, or both.

Network Layer

57

Controls and ensures the end-to-end integrity of the data message propagated through the network between two devices, which provides reliable, transparent transfer of data between two endpoints.

Transport Layer

58

Responsible for network availability.

Session Layer

59

Provides independence to the application processes by addressing any code or syntax conversion necessary to present the data to the network in a common communications format.

Presentation Layer

60

It provides distributed information services and controls the sequence of activities within an application.

Application Layer

61

An endpoint where subscribers gain access to the circuit.

Station

62

Another term of station which is the location of computers, computer terminals, workstations and other digital computing equipment.

Node

63

Interconnects digital computer equipment.

Facilities

64

Provides means to enter data from humans.

Source

65

Encodes a wireless radio system without being converted to analog first.

Transmitter

66

Carries the encoded signals from the transmitter to the receiver.

Transmission Medium

67

Converts the encoded signals received from the transmission medium back to their original form.

Receiver

68

It could be a mainframe computer, personal computer workstation or virtually any piece of digital equipment.

Destination

69

A type of transmission where all four bits can be transmitted simultaneously during the time of a single clock pulse.

Parallel by Bit or Serial by Character

70

Transmission where four clock pulses are required to transmit the entire four-bit code.

Serial by Bit

71

It involves only two locations or stations

Two-Point  Configuration

72

It involves three or more stations.

Multi-point Configuration

73

Data transmission is unidirectional where information can be sent in only one direction.

Simplex

74

Also called Receive-Only, Transmit Only or One-way-only Lines

Simplex Lines

75

Data transmission is possible in both directions but not at the same time.

Another term:

·         two way alternate lines

·         either way lines

Half Duplex

76

Transmissions are possible in both directions between two stations simultaneously, but they must be between same time.

Another terms;

·         Two-way simultaneous

·         duplex

·         both-way lines

Full Duplex

77

Transmission is possible in both directions at the same time but not between the same two stations. It is possible only on multipoint circuits.

Full/Full Duplex

78

The process of sharing resources between computers over a data communications network.

Networking

79

The manual technique of moving data on disks.

Sneaker Net

80

Computers that hold shared files, programs and the network operating system.

Servers

81

Computers that access and use the network and shared network resources.

Client

82

The facilities used to interconnect computers in a network.

Transmission Media

83

Data that file servers provide to clients.

Shared Data

84

Hardware resources provided to the users of the network by servers.

Shared Printers and

other

peripherals

85

An expansion card and prepares and sends data, receives data and controls data flow between the computer and the network.

Network Interface Card

(NIC)

86

Allows personal computers to access files, print to a local printer and have and use one or more disk and CD drives that are located on the computer.

Local Operating System

(LOS)

87

A program that runs on computers and servers that allows the computers to communicate over a network.

Network Operating

System (NOS)

88

One in which all computers share their resources.

Peer - to - Peer Client/

Server Network

89

One computer is designated the server and the rest of the computers are clients.

Dedicated Client/Server Network

90

Describes the layout or appearance of a network.

Network Topology

91

Describes how the network is actually laid out.

Physical Topology

92

Describes how data actually flow through the network.

Logical Topology

93

A multipoint data communications network where remote stations are connected by cable segments directly to a central located computer.

Star Topology

94

A multipoint data communications circuit that makes it relatively simple to control data flow between and among the computers.

Bus Topology

95

A multipoint data communications network where all stations are interconnected in tandem to form a closed loop or circle.

Ring Topology

96

Every station has a direct two-point communications link to every other station on the circuit.

Mesh Topology

97

Combining two or more of the traditional topologies to form a larger, more complex topology.

Hybrid Topology

98

Privately own networks in which 10 to 40 compute share data resources with one or more file server.

Local Area Networks

(LANs)

99

A high-speed network similar to a LAN except the are designed to encompass larger areas, usually that of an entire city.

Metropolitan Area Networks

 (MANs)

100

Provides low-speed, long distance transmission of data voice, and video information over large and widely dispersed geographical areas such as country or an entire continent. It interconnects cities or states.

Wide Area Network

(WAN)

101

Bit rate of WANs.

1.5 Mbps-2.4 Gbps

102

Provides connects between countries around the entire globe.

Global Area Network

(GANs)

103

A network connection that normally carries traffic between departmental LANs within a single company.

Building Backbone

104

A network connection used to carry traffic to and from LANs located in various buildings on campus.

Campus Backbone

105

Developed by Department of Defense, comprise of several interactive modules that provide specific functionality.

TCP/IP Protocol Suite

106

The network layer of TCP/IP.

Internet layer/

Internet work Layer

107

Transport layer of TCP/IP.

Transmission Control Protocol

(TCP)

User datagram Protocol

(UDP)

108

Provides a means of physically delivering data packets using frames or cells.

Network Access Layer

109

Contains information that pertains to how data can be routed through the network.

Internet Layer

110

Services the process and internet layers to handle the reliability and session aspects of data transmission.

Host-to-Host Layer

111

Provides applications support.

Process Layer

112

Defines a three layer logical hierarchy that specifies where things belong, how they fit together and what functions go where.

Three layers:

·         Core layer

·         Distribution layer

·         access layer

Cisco Three-Layer Model

113

The core of the network as it resides at the top of the hierarchy and is responsible for transporting large amounts of data traffic reliably and quickly.

Core Layer

114

The communications point between the access and the core layer that provides routing, filtering, WAN access and how data packets are allowed to access the core layer.

Distribution Layer

115

Another term for Distribution layer.

Workgroup Layer

116

Controls workgroup and individual user access to internetworking resources.

Access Layer

117

Another term for Access layer.

Desktop Layer

Complete List of Reviewers in Electronic Communications System per Chapter

Important List of Communications Engineering Materials


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