Chapter 20: Cellular Telephone System - Review Notes

Reviewer and summary notes of the important concepts and formulas in Chapter 20 of the book "Introduction to Electronics Communications" by Wayne Tomasi.

Chapter 20: Cellular Telephone System

This is the summary notes of the important terms and concepts in Chapter 20 of the book "Electronic Communications System" by Wayne Tomasi. The notes are properly synchronized and concise for much better understanding of the book. Make sure to familiarize this review notes to increase the chance of passing the ECE Board Exam.

CHAPTER 20

CELLULAR TELEPHONE SYSTEM

Items

Definitions

Terms

1

Stands for Standard Cellular Telephone Service

CTS

2

An acronym for Personal Communications System.

PCS

3

Stands for Personal Communications Satellite System.

PCSS

4

An acronym for Advanced Mobile Telephone System.

AMPS

5

Proposed the cellular telephone concept in 1971.

Bell Telephone Laboratories

6

A standard cellular telephone service (CTS) initially placed into operation on Oct. 13, 1983.

AMPS

7

It was used by AMPS cellular telephones with a usable audio-frequency band from 300 Hz to 3 KHz and a maximum frequency deviation of + 12 KHz for 100% modulation.

Narrowband Frequency Modulation

(NBFM)

8

Correspond to an approximate bandwidth of 30 KHz.

Carson’s Rule

9

A transmission with simultaneous transmission in both directions.

Full Duplex (FDX)

or Duplexing

10

It is used in AMPS and occurs when two distinct frequency bands are provided to each user.

Frequency-division

Duplexing

11

A special device used in each mobile unit to allow simultaneous transmission and reception on duplex channels.

Duplexer

12

Transmissions from base station to mobile units.

Forward Links

13

Transmissions from mobile units to base stations.

Reverse Links

14

Another name for forward links.

Down Links

15

Another term for reverse link.

Uplink

16

Additional frequencies of 10 MHz to the original40 MHz band which increased the number of simplex channels by 166 for a total of 832 (416 Full duplex).

Expanded Spectrum

17

Specified frequencies in a small geographic area.

Cellular Geographic Serving Areas

(CGSA)

18

Defines geographic areas used by marketing agencies.

Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area

19

A technique used by standard telephone subscriber to access the AMPS system.

Frequency Division

Multiple Access

20

A 34 bit binary code which in the U.S. represents the standard 10-digit telephone number.

Mobile Identification

Number (MIN)

21

A 34 bit binary code permanently assigned to each mobile unit.

Electronic Serial Number

(ESN)

22

Stands for Vehicle Identification Number.

VIN

23

An acronym for Network Interface Card.

NIC

24

A four bit code which indicates whether the terminal has access to all 832 AMPS channel or only 666.

Station Class Mark (SCM)

25

A 15 bit binary code used by FCC to an operating company when it issues it a license To provide AMPS

System Identifier (SID)

26

It is one of the three analog frequencies (5970 Hz, 6000 Hz, or 6030 Hz) that helps mobile system distinguish one base station from a neighboring base station.

Supervisory Audio Tone

(SAT)

27

One of four binary codes, also helps mobile system distinguish one base station from a neighboring base station.

Digital Color Code (DCC)

28

One set of channels dedicated for exchanging control information between mobile units and base stations.

Control Channels

29

Also termed as Voice channel, used for propagating actual voice conversations or subscriber data.

User Channel

30

Another name of control channels.

Setup or Paging Channel

31

Sometimes called as Camped.

Locked

32

A sequence of alternating 1s and 0s.

Dotting Scheme

33

A unique sequence of 1s and 0s that enables the receiver to instantly acquire synchronization.

Synchronization Word

34

It controls or command mobile units to do a particular task when the mobile unit has not been assigned a voice channel.

Mobile Station Control Messages

35

It is used to indicate the current status of the reverse control channel.

Busy-idle Bits

36

It contains the following:

·         System parameter overhead messages

·         global action overhead messages

·         control filter messages

Typical mobile-unit control messages:

·         Initial voice channel designation messages

·         directed retry messages

·         alert messages

·         change power messages

Overhead Message

37

Transmitted at a 10-kbps rate.

Control data includes:

·         page responses

·         access request

·         registration requests

Control Data

38

Transmission of voice.

Blank

39

Data transmission.

Burst

40

The entity of SS7 interoffice protocol that distinguishes the physical components of the switching network.

Switching Network:

·         Signal Service Point

·         Signal Control Point

·         Signal Transfer Point

Intelligent Network

41

A family of mobile or portable radio communications services which provides services to the individuals and business and is integrated with a variety of competing networks.

Differences in PCS and cellular telephone system:

·         Smaller Size

·         all digital

·         additional features

Personal Communications System

(PCS)

42

Acronym for Personal Communications Network.

PCN

43

It is assigned to everyone which is stored the on the SS7 network.

Personal Telephone Number

44

It determines where and how the call should be directed.

Artificial Intelligence Network

(AIN)

45

A database that stores information about the user, including home subscription information and what supplementary services the user is subscribed to.

Home Location Register

(HLR)

46

A database that stores information pertaining to the identification and type of equipment that exists in the mobile unit.

Equipment Identification Registry

(EIR)

47

It allows all calls to pass through the network to the subscriber except for a minimal number of telephone numbers that can be blocked.

Available Mode

48

The PCS equivalent of caller ID.

Screen Mode

49

All calls except those specified by the subscriber are automatically forwarded to a forwarding destination without ringing the subscriber’s handset.

Private Mode

50

No calls are allowed to pass through to the subscriber.

Unavailable Mode

51

PCS operating in the 1900 MHz range.

PCS 1900

52

Interference avoidance scheme which uses voice companding to provide synthetic voice channel quieting.

Interference (MRI)

53

A narrowband AMPS system that increased the capacity of the AMPS system in large cellular market.

N-AMPS

54

It is developed with the intent of supporting a higher user density within a fixed bandwidth frequency spectrum.

United States Digital Cellular

55

Cellular telephone systems that use digital modulation.

Digital cellular

56

Allows one mobile unit to use a channel at the same time by further dividing transmissions within each cellular channel.

Time-division Multiple Accessing

(TDMA)

57

A database that stores information about subscriber in a particular MTSO serving area, such as whether the unit is on or off

Visitor Location Register

(VLR)

58

Technique used that allows more mobile-unit subscribers to use a system at virtually the same time within a given geographical area.

Time-Sharing Channels

59

It stands for Electronics Industries Association and Telecommunications Industry Association.

EIA/TIA

60

It specifies that a mobile station complying with the IS-54 standard must be capable of operating in either the analog AMPS or the digital (USDC) mode for voice transmissions.

Dual Mode

61

It is often called North American Time Division Multiple Accessing.

IS-136.2

62

It was introduced to provide PSK rather than FSK on dedicated USDC control channels to increase the control data rates and provide additional specialized services such as paging and short messaging between private mobile user groups.

IS-54 Rev.C

63

Allows for brief paging-type messages and Short e-mail messages that can be read on the mobile phone’s display and entered using the keypad.

Short Message Service

64

It was developed to provide a host of new features and services, positioning itself in a competitive within the newer PCS systems.

IS-136

65

It is used by mobile units to request access to the cellular telephone system. It is a unidirectional channel specified for transmissions from mobile-base units only.

Random Access Channel

(RACH)

66

It is used to transmit information from base stations to specific mobile stations.

SMS point-to-point Paging and access response Channel

(SPACH)

67

It is dedicated to delivering pages and orders.

It transmit :

·         paging messages

·         message-waiting messages

·         user alerting messages

·         call history count updates

·         shared secret data updates

Paging Channel (PCH)

68

A logical subchannel of SPACH used to carry assignments to another resource or other responses to the mobile station’s access attempt.

Access Response Channel

(ARCH)

69

It is used to deliver short point-to-point messages to a specific mobile station.

SMS Channel

(SMSCH)

70

It refers to : F-BCCH, E-BCCH and S-BCCH logical sub channels.

Channel

(BCCH)

71

Broadcasts digital control channel structure parameters.

Fast Broadcasts Control channel

(F-BBCH)

72

Carries less critical broadcast information than FBCCH intended for mobile units.

Extended Broadcasts Control Channel

(E-BBCH)

73

Individual mobile units. A logical channels used for sending short messages.

SMS Broadcasts Control Channel

(F-BBCH)

74

Stands for Digital speech interpolation.

DSI

75

Carries digital voice information and consists of RDTC and FDTC.

Digital Traffic Channel

(DTC)

76

It consists of an eight bit digital voice color code number between 1 and 255 appended with four

Coded Digital Verification

Color Code

77

Mobile-assisted handoff.

MAHO

78

A blank-and burst type of transmission that replaces digitized speech information with control and supervision messages with in a subscriber’s time slot.

Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)

79

A special speech coder.

Vector sum exciter linear predictive (VSLP)

80

A special microprocessor that is implemented on the telephone handset.

Digital Signal Processor

(DSP)

81

They are transmitted when a mobile unit begins operating in a larger diameter cell.

Shortened Burst

82

An access method used with standard analog AMPS which use frequency channelization approach to frequency spectrum management.

FDMA

83

It allows users to differentiate from one another by a unique code rather than a frequency or time assignment.

Code Division Multiple Accessing

(CDMA)

84

Stands for Qualcom 9600bps Code-Excited Linear Predictive coder.

QCELP

85

The concept is to break the message into fixed sized blocks of data with each block transmitted in sequence except on a different carrier.

Frequency Hopping

86

high bit pseudorandom code is added to a low-bit rate information signal to generate a high bit rate pseudorandom signal closely resembling noise that contains both the original data signal and the pseudo random code must be known.

Direct-Sequence

87

It is a study group which is sometimes referred to as Pan-European cellular system. This is now known as the Global System for Mobile Communications.

Classification of GSM telephone services:

·         Bearer Services

·         teleservices

·         supplementary services

Three primary subsystem of GSM:

·         Base Station Subsystem

·         Network Switching Subsystem

·         Operational Support Subsystem

Groupe Special Mobile

(GSM)

88

All-digital data Network.

Integrated Services Digital Network

(ISDN)

89

Sometimes known as radio subsystem, provides and manages radio frequency transmission paths between mobile units and the mobile switching center (MSC)

Base Station Subsystem

(BSS)

90

It manages switching functions for the system and allows MSCs to communicate with other telephone networks.

Network Switching Subsystem

(NSS)

91

The available forward and reverse frequency bands are subdivided into 200 KHz wide voice channels.

Absolute Radio-Frequency Channel Numbers

(ARFCN)

92

It provides the vehicle for a new generation of wireless telephone services called Personal Communications Satellite System (PCSS).

Mobile Satellite Systems

(MSS)

93

It uses low earth-orbit (LEO) and medium earth orbit and MEO thar communicates directly with small, low-powered mobile telephone units.

key providers in PCSS market:

·         American Mobile Satellite Communications (AMSC)

·         Celsat

·         Comsat

·         Constellation Communications (ARIES)

·         Ellipsat (Ellipso)

·         INMARSAT

·         LEOSAT

·         Loral/qualcomm (global star)

·         TMI communications

·         TWR (Odysse)

·         Iridium LLC

Personal Communications Satellite System

PCSS)

94

An international consortium owned by a host of prominent companies, agencies and governments.

Iridium LC

95

The largest commercial venture undertaken in the history of the world.

Iridium Project

96

A satellite based wireless personal communications network designed to permit a wide range of mobile telephone services, including voice, data, networking, facsimile and paging.

Iridium

97

FCC issued a report and order Dockett # 92-166 defining L band frequency sharing for subscriber units in the 1616 MHZ to 1626.5 MHz band.

October 14, 1994

98

L-band subscriber-to-satellite voice links.

1.616 GHz to 1.6265 GHz

99

Ka-band gateway downlinks.

19.4 GHz to 19.6 GHz

100

Ka-band gateway uplinks

29.1 GHz to 29.3 GHz

101

Ka-intersatellite cross-links

23.18 GHz to 23.38 GHz

Complete List of Reviewers in Electronic Communications System per Chapter

Important List of Communications Engineering Materials


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